spanish education system in the philippines
The oldest universities, colleges, vocational schools and the first modern public education system in Asia were created during the colonial period. In addition, a study conducted by Sahn et al. The concept of mass education was relatively new, an offshoot of the 18th century Age of Enlightenment. Spanish friars and missionaries educated the natives through religion with the aim of converting indigenous populations to the Catholic faith. At this level, private schools enroll a much higher percentage of students than at the elementary level. The first book printed in the Philippines between 1590 and 1592 was the Chinese version of the Christian Doctrine. 7 75% of all secondary school graduates lived in urban areas. The education system is administered and overseen by the Department of Education, a federal department with offices in each of the country’s 13 regions. The education system in the Philippines has largely been shaped by its colonial history, particularly by the Spanish and American cultures. This new enlightened class of Filipinos would later lead the Philippine independence movement, using the Spanish language as their main communication method. The following are the classes and their differences: Spanish policies and practices created the typical dual system of colonial education, one set of schools for Filipino youth and an-other for the children of resident Spaniards. The Jesuits also founded the Colegio de San José (1601) and took over the management of a school that became the Escuela Municipal (1859, later renamed Ateneo Municipal de Manila in 1865, now the Ateneo de Manila University). Optional subjects include music, arts, physical education, and health. Free access to modern public education by all Filipinos was made possible through the enactment of the Education Decree of December 20, 1863 by Queen Isabella II. EDUCATION. The Augustinians opened a school immediately upon arriving in Cebú in 1565. It was followed by another school for women, Colegio de Santa Isabel, that opened in 1632. An analysis of the Philippine education under the Spanish regime was presented in the first part of Chapter III and the second part presented education under the American rule. In 1995, legislation was enacted that provided for the transfer of supervision of all non-degree technical and vocational education programs from the Bureau of Vocational Education, also under the control of the Department of Education, to a new and independent agency now known as the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). Our government uses only 2.7% of the country’s GDP—which is, at an estimate, eight from 304 billion pesos—which is not enough to sustain an effective education system. The oldest universities, colleges, vocational schools and the first modern public education system in Asia were created during the colonial period. Today, however, with the passage of the Higher Education Act of 1994, an independent government agency known as the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) now provides the general supervision and control over all colleges and universities in the country, both public and private. Additionally, there are also several schools that are deemed “Science Secondary Schools”—which enroll students who have demonstrated a particular gift in math, science, or technology at the primary school level. Among the subjects being taught to girls, as reflected in the curriculum of the Colegio de Santa Isabel, were Arithmetic, Drawing, Dress-cutting, French, Geology, Geography, Geometry, History of Spain, Music, Needlework, Philippine History, Physics, Reading, Sacred History and Spanish Grammar. In the Philippines, the academic school year begins in June and concludes in March, a period that covers a total of 40 weeks. Finally, the Philippine Commission made no reference to the fact that the pioneering public school education introduced by Spain in the Philippines was the first of its kind in all of Asia, and the first to be established in any European colony in the world. Spanish was used as the language of instruction. According to the Department of Education, Makabayan is a learning area that serves as a practice environment for holistic learning; an area in which students develop a healthy personal and national self-identity. In 1590, the Universidad de San Ignacio was founded in Manila by the Jesuits, initially as the Colegio-Seminario de San Ignacio. (2003) investigated the relative importance of rural versus urban areas in terms of eight related living standards indicators including education. It was only in the 19th century that they were able to attend the universities that had been established two centuries earlier, and it was only when the US took control of the Philippines in 1898 that consideration was given to non-religious education, English-language teaching … In 1610 Tomas Pinpin a Filipino printer, writer and publisher, who is sometimes referred as the "Patriarch of Filipino Printing", wrote his famous Librong Pagaaralan nang manga Tagalog nang Uicang Castilla, that was meant to help Filipinos learn the Spanish language. The concept of mass education was relatively new, an offshoot of the 18th century Age of Enlightenment. For instance, a student may take two years of general trade-technical courses, followed by two years specializing specifically in cabinet making. Although the Philippine system of education has long served as a model for other Southeast Asian countries, in recent years that system has deteriorated. Major subjects include maths, science, English, Filipino and social sciences. Education served mainly for catechism purposes. Within months of their arrival in Tigbauan which is in Iloilo province located in the island of Panay, Pedro Chirino and Francisco Martín had established a school for Visayan boys in 1593 in which they taught not only the catechism but reading, writing, Spanish, and liturgical music. Spanish education played a major role in that transformation. The study of pharmacy consisted of a preparatory course with subjects in natural history and general chemistry and five years of studies in subjects such as pharmaceutical operations at the school of pharmacy. The University of Santo Tomás, for example, started by teaching theology, philosophy and humanities. The Black Legend propagation, black propaganda and yellow journalism were rampant in the last two decades of Spanish Colonial Period and throughout the American Colonial Period. Below we will discuss the education system of the Philippines in great detail, including a description of both the primary and secondary education levels in the country, as well as the systems currently in place for vocational and university education. A Nautical School was created on January 1, 1820 which offered a four-year course of study (for the profession of pilot of merchant marine) that included subjects such as arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, physics, hydrography, meteorology, navigation and pilotage. King Philip II's Leyes de Indias (Laws of the Indies) mandated Spanish authorities in the Philippines to educate the natives, to teach them how to read and write and to learn Spanish. A Permanent Record, or Form 137-A, listing all classes taken and grades earned, is also awarded to graduating students. The Universidad de San Carlos was founded in Cebú by the Jesuits on August 1, 1595, initially named as the Colegio de San Ildefonso. The United States left a lasting impression on the Philippine school system. Other important vocational schools established were the Escuela de Contaduría, Academia de Pintura y Dibujo and the seminaries of Manila, Nueva Segovia, Cebú, Jaro and Nueva Cáceres. Spanish education for the Filipinos was designed to convert them to Catholicism and then to maintain them in that faith. For a few hundred years in the Spanish territories, this has been the case. To calculate the percentage of children on scholar age, it must be taken into account the number of children in Elementary School age (ages 5 through 13) and teenagers in High School age (ages 14 through 17). It closed down in 1769 as a result of the expulsion of the Jesuits from the Philippines and didn't open again until 1783. Its mission was to provide theoretical and practical education by agricultural engineers to skilled farmers and overseers, and to promote agricultural development by means of observation, experiment and investigation. There are essentially three degree stages of higher education in the Philippines: Bachelor (Batsilyer), Master (Masterado) and PhD ((Doktor sa Pilospiya). All of them provided courses leading to different prestigious degrees, like the Bachiller en Artes, that by the 19th century included science subjects such as physics, chemistry, natural history and mathematics. It was the first Jesuit boarding school to be established in the Philippines. The curriculum at the nation’s 9 Secondary Science schools is very similar to that of the General Secondary Schools. 5. The oldest universities, colleges, vocational schools and the first modern public education system in Asia were created during the colonial period. Spanish education played a major role in that transformation. These stages of educational evolution can be traced way back from the Pre-Spanish period, to the Spanish Period, to the American period, to the Commonwealth and the Japanese period going to the present. Topics for dissertations must be approved by the faculty at the university at which the student is studying. Philippine education system was focused on in Chapter II. Such system was even ahead of most of United States at the time, where by 1900 only 34 states had any kind of compulsory schooling laws requiring attendance until age 14. Augustinian Friar Juan Zita and civic leader Don Felino Gil established the vocational school on November 4, 1861. The Education Decree of 1863 provided for the establishment of at least two free primary schools, one for boys and another for girls, in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government. Interested candidates who wish to pursue their education at one of the country’s post-secondary vocational schools must have at least a high school diploma and a Certificate of Graduation to qualify. Vocational and technical programs lead to either a certificate (often entitled a Certificate of Proficiency) or a diploma. Vocational high schools in the Philippines differ from their General Secondary School counterparts in that they place more focus on vocationally-oriented training, the trades and practical arts. Non-University Higher Education (Vocational and Technical). Because of that, most of the money earmarked for education goes to the country’s primary schools. Gunnar Myrdal, a renowned Swedish economist, observed that in 19th-century Asia, Japan and Spanish Philippines stood out because of their stress on modern public education. Once a student successfully completes each of the six grades of primary school, he or she is awarded a certificate of graduation from the school they attended. The Spanish education system is supported by the national government and the individual governments of each of the 17 autonomous regions in Spain. The royal decree provided for a complete educational system which would consist of primary, secondary and tertiary levels, finally making officially available to Filipinos valuable training for leadership after three centuries of colonization. Since the 1887 census yielded a count of 6,984,727, 20% would be approximately 1,4 million. Although students who opt to study at one of the country’s vocational secondary schools are still required to take and pass many of the same core academic subjects, they are also exposed to a greater concentration of technical and vocational subjects. However, after independence, the country's educational system has constantly undergone reform. One of these schools was the Escuela Normal Elemental, which, in 1896 became the Escuela Normal Superior de Maestros de Manila (Manila Ordinary School for Schoolmistresses). Philippine Colonial Education System The Philippines had a long colonial history, spanning the 16th to 20th century (1565 up to 1946). Entrance to the Science High Schools is also the result of competitive examinations. Students must also take youth develop training (including physical education, health education, music, and citizen army training), practical arts (including home economics, agriculture and fisheries, industrial arts and entrepreneurship), values education and some electives, including subjects from both academic and vocational pathways. Chirino at once put up a dormitory and school house (1593-1594) for the Spanish boys near his rectory. 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