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"[180] The Indian nationalist and Yoga guru Sri Aurobindo stated, "Thirukkural is gnomic poetry, the greatest in planned conception and force of execution ever written in this kind. Maharishi Vidya Mandir Senior Secondary School, Chetpet. [65][68], According to Zvelebil, the content of the Kural text is "undoubtedly patterned" and "very carefully structured. Karka.in. A list of all the works by Shri Adi Shankaracharya is given below. For example, the term Thirukkural is a cir formed by combining the two words thiru and kuṛaḷ. [135] The text was translated into several European languages during the colonial era, particularly by the Christian missionaries. … This Buddhist epic ridicules Jainism while embedding morals and ideals similar to those in the Kural. Mayuram Vishwanatha Shastri set all the verses to music in the early 20th century. [106][107] Following are some of the instances where Valluvar employs contradictions to expound the virtues. [25] Later scholars Thomas Burrow and Murray Barnson Emeneau show that 35 of these are of Dravidian origin and not Sanskrit loan words. [238], j. [85] Unlike Manusmriti, the Tirukurral does not give importance to castes or any dynasty of rulers and ministers. [28], In 1921, in the face of incessant debate on the precise date, the Tamil Nadu government officially declared 31 BCE as the year of Valluvar at a conference presided over by Maraimalai Adigal. [88], The greatest of personal virtues according to the Kural text is non-killing, followed by veracity,[89][90][91] and the two greatest sins that Valluvar feels very strongly are ingratitude and meat-eating. Along with various versions of his birth circumstances, many state he went to a mountain and met the legendary Agastya and other sages. [18] The Tamil people and the government of Tamil Nadu have long celebrated and upheld the text with reverence. 006 Uyar Valluvam Thirukkural- … "[70] There are no structural gaps in the text, with every couplet indispensable for the structured whole. Results 0067 from youtube at www.herofastermp3.com. [62][g], The content of Tirukkural, according to Zvelebil:[64], The Kural text is the work of a single author because it has a consistent "language, formal structure and content-structure", states Zvelebil. This has produced highly divergent interpretations of the original. 42 Raghupriya S R1 G1 M2 P D3 N3 2. [232][233][234], h. ^ Commentary – sometimes referred to as bhasya in the Indian tradition – refers to explanations and interpretations of aphoristic texts. It proceeds to describe the qualities of a righteous person, before concluding the introduction by emphasizing the value of aṟam or virtue. [209] This statue is currently India's 25th tallest. [157], The first critical edition of the Tirukkaral based on manuscripts discovered in Hindu monasteries and private collections was published in 1861 by Arumuka Navalar – the Jaffna born Tamil scholar and Shaivism activist. The term tiru has as many as 19 different meanings. [20] Kural means something that is "short, concise, and abridged. [76][77], The three books of the Kural base aṟam or dharma (virtue) as its cornerstone,[79] which resulted in the Kural being referred to simply as Aṟam. [217], The Kural text was first included in the school syllabus by the colonial era British government. "The Collection of Short [Poems]") and many lines in Narrinai (lit. [25] The 102 remaining loan words from Sanskrit are "not negligible", and some of the teachings in the Kural text, according to Zvelebil, are "undoubtedly" based on the then extant Sanskrit works such as the Arthashastra and Manusmriti (also called the Manavadharmasastra). Kural 629: "He who never exulted in joy will not be depressed by sorrow. [100], (Kural 543; John Lazarus 1885,[101] & A. K. Ananthanathan 1994). [1] While the text extols the virtue of non-violence, it also dedicates many of 700 poruḷ couplets to various aspects of statecraft and warfare in a manner similar to the Hindu text Arthasastra. The temple shikhara (spire) above the sanctum shows scenes of Hindu life and deities, along with Valluvar reading his couplets to his wife. February 18, 2017 - Saturday, 3.30pm - 7 pm, Power shutdown areas in Chennai Today (30.12.2020), Delay in the opening of the north line of the Chennai Metro Rail, Alarm - UK Returnee from Chennai tests positive for New Covid-19 Variant! Netra Chakra 8. "[180], The Kural has historically been exalted by leaders of political, spiritual, social and virtually every other domain. [9] The work is traditionally grouped under the Eighteen Lesser Texts series of the late Sangam works, known in Tamil as Patiṉeṇkīḻkaṇakku. [43] According to Zvelebil, the ethics and ideas in Valluvar's work are not Christian ethics. "[180] According to K. M. Munshi, "Thirukkural is a treatise par excellence on the art of living. In 1967, the Tamil Nadu government passed an order stating that the image of Valluvar should be present in all government offices across the state of Tamil Nadu. [62] Thus, wealth and pleasure must be pursued with an "action with renunciation" (Nishkam Karma), that is, one must act without craving in order to resolve this tension. The best thing we … The commentaries by Thirumalaiyar and Mallar are lost completely. Etymologically, kural is the shortened form of kural paattu, which … [132], The Kural has been the most frequently translated ancient Tamil text. Neither his actual name nor the original are no structural gaps in the Indian as... An army has a duty to kill in battle, and domestic life Soon many commentaries followed, those. 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